The clock is ticking down on the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s) ADS-B mandate. Aircrafts need to be equipped with ADS-B to fly into most controlled airspace before the deadline ends. But do you know what Automatic dependent surveillance—broadcast (ADS–B) is? At iJET, we always want our reader to be informed about the most important discussions in the aviation world- and the need of the hour is ADS-B. In our two-part blog series, we discuss the ADS-B, ADS-B mandate, and everything operators should know about it.
ADS–B is an environmentally friendly surveillance technology, which uses satellite navigation to help aircraft determine its position. It also periodically broadcasts the position to enable it to be tracked. It is a replacement for secondary surveillance radar and will require no interrogation signal from the air traffic control ground stations. A major plus is that ADS-B can be used to by aircraft to provide situational awareness and allow self-separation.
ADS–B requires no external input or pilot to operate it, as it is “automatic.” All it needs is data from the aircraft’s navigation system.
Being an eco-friendly technology, ADS-B helps to enhance safety and efficiency for pilots, controllers, airports, airlines, and the public in general. It is crucial to shift from ground radar and navigational aids to accurate tracking using satellite signals as it is in line with the plans of FAA’s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), to increase the safety, efficiency, capacity, access, flexibility, predictability, and resilience of the National Airspace System (NAS) while reducing the environmental impacts of flying.
Also, ADS-B offers a larger coverage since ground stations are much more easier to place than radar. Locations like Gulf of Mexico and parts of Alaska, which are without radar coverage, now have surveillance with ADS-B.
In aircrafts using ADS-B, pilots will be able to see what controllers see- displays showing other aircraft in the sky. The cockpit display will also help them by locating dangerous weather and terrain, equip them with important flight information, such as temporary flight restrictions, reduce the risk of runway intrusions. An interesting thing is that it will be available in situations like night or during heavy rainfall, providing pilots indications or alerts of potential collisions.
By improving accuracy, integrity, and reliability, controllers eventually will be able to safely reduce the minimum separation distance between aircraft and increase capacity in the nation’s skies. Also, by relying on satellites aircraft will be able to fly more directly from Point A to B, which will, in turn, save time and money, in addition to reducing fuel burn and emissions.
In May 2010, the FAA had issued two Federal Regulation 14 CFR § 91.225 and 14 CFR § 91.227. This regulation mandates that effective from January 1, 2020, aircraft operating in Class A airspace (Defined in detail in 14 CFR § 91.225), should have an ADS-B system. The system should include a certified position source which meets the requirements defined in 14 CFR § 91.227. Both the regulations also lay down certain minimum performance standard for both the ADS-B Transmitter and the position sources integrated with the ADS-B equipment your aircraft.
In simple terms, aircraft flying in airspace where a transponder is obligatory, will be required to be equipped with compliant ADS-B Out technology. But what is ADS-B Out? There is a lot more to the ADS-B rule, things that you have to know. But we will leave it for our next blog. If you have any question regarding the ADS-B you can talk to our flight operations expert anytime.